The country has also undergone significant political transformations, from a strictly secular one-party state under military tutelage in the yearly decades of the Republic to today’s Turkey under the leadership of a conservative democratic party with roots in political Islam. The EU reform process is also leaving its imprint on the country’s governance structures on the macro, meso, and micro levels.

• Research in this theme will provide a deeper understanding of recent transformations by examining the historical and contemporary transaction patterns, structures, institutions that serve as the preconditions for current and future developments in politics, business and economics.